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Skat Rules Primary Sidebar VideoHow to Play SKAT
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The player winning the trick will take the 3 cards used in the trick. These will be used in the scoring process.
The round continues until all cards are played out. Each player then counts their scores based on the taken tricks.
Skat scoring is based on multiple factors including card values, multipliers, game type and the Skat. Scoring is always assigned to the winning bidder, or declarer.
If the declarer wins the game, they get assigned a positive score. If the declarer losses the game, the scores will be deducted from their total at double the value.
The most obvious scoring is based on the cards won in each trick. The card values are as described in the following table:. Also, note that in Null games, there are no card points, the game is entirely predicated on the fact that the calling bidder cannot take even one trick.
If the bid exceeds the game value at the end of the round, it is considered an overbid. This hand is considered lost, even if the bidder has the most points in terms of card value.
This results in a negative score for the winning bidder. The overbid hands are scored based on the lowest possible game value, multiplied with the modifiers that would have been applied if the winning bidder did not lose via overbidding.
A player who is dealt 31 in their original three cards declares it - there is no play and all the other players lose a life. If it happens that two or more players get 31 on the initial deal then all the players other than those with 31 lose.
A player who has 31 in their hand and does not declare it as soon as they make it or are dealt it cannot claim it later. An undeclared 31 in a player's hand effectively counts as 30 - if another player declares 31 the holder of the undeclared 31 will lose a life along with the other players.
If the stock runs out the play can continue as long as each player wishes to take the previous player's diuscard. If the player whose turn it is does not wish to draw the top discard, the play ends and all players show their cards and the hand is scored.
If no one has knocked then the player who has the lowest score loses one life, or if there is a tie all the players with the lowest score lose a life.
The normal way of scoring in Scat is that each player begins the game with three pennies. When you lose a life, you have to put one of your pennies into the kitty in the centre of the table.
If you knock and lose, having the sole lowest hand, you pay two pennies if you have that many. If someone declares 31, all the other players have to put a penny in the kitty.
If someone declares 31 after another player has knocked, the knocker just pays one penny, like everyone else. If you have no money left, having lost all three of your pennies, you are said to be "on the county" meaning receiving charity from the county, etc.
If you lose while on the county, you are out of the game. If you lose two lives when you only have one penny you are also out of the game. The game continues until only one player has not been eliminated, and that player is the winner.
There is a theoretical possibility of a draw if all the remaining players are on the county, the draw pile runs out before anyone knocks or makes 31, and all remaining players have equal scores.
If this unlikely situation were to arise and it was necessary to determine a winner, the hand would have to be replayed.
Some play that in case of a tie for lowest score between a knocker and one or more other players, the knocker loses two lives while the other players in the tie lose one life.
If a player declares 31 after a knock, the player with 31 is safe, knocker loses two lives and the other players each lose one life.
Some play that 3-of-a-kind of any rank counts as 30 or When it counts 30, it ties with three ten-point cards of the same suit.
If it counts Play then proceeds normally, and you play from your exposed hand. The opponents are not allowed to discuss tactics.
The value of a Suit or Grand contract is obtained by multiplying together two numbers: the base value and the multiplier. The base value depends on the trump suit as follows:.
Open contracts are extremely rare: you can only play open if you did not look at the skat and you also undertake to win every trick.
By implication, an open contract includes announcements of Schneider and Schwarz,so you count: matadors, game, Hand, Schneider, Schneider announced, Schwarz, Schwarz announced, and Open.
The jack of clubs and any top trumps in unbroken sequence with it are called matadors. If as declarer you have such a sequence in your original hand plus the skat, you are with that number of matadors.
If there is such a sequence in the opponents' combined hands, declarer is against that number of matadors. Note that for the purposes of matadors, cards in the skat count as part of declarer's hand, even though in a Hand game declarer does not know what is in the skat when choosing the game.
The game multiplier is always counted, whether declarer wins or loses. The calculation of the value of a game sounds something like this: "with 2, game 3, Schneider 4, 4 times spades is 44".
The declarer must always be with or against at least one matador the jack of clubs must be somewhere , so the smallest possible multiplier is 2, and the smallest possible game value and the lowest possible bid is These are easy to score.
Each possible Null contract has a fixed value unaffected by multipliers. As with all contracts, an unsuccessful declarer loses twice the value of the game.
The Null values are:. These rather eccentric looking numbers are chosen to fit between the other contract values, each being slightly below a multiple of Before the rule change of 1st Jan , Null Hand cost only 35 when lost and Null Ouvert Hand cost only 59 - see scoring variations.
If declarer wins the game and the value of the game is as least as much as the bid, then the value of the game is added to the declarer's cumulative score.
If the declarer loses the game and the value of the game is as least as much as the bid, then twice the value of the game is subtracted from the declarer's score.
If the value of the declarer's game turns out to be less than the bid then the declarer automatically loses - it does not matter how many card points were taken.
The amount subtracted from the declarer's score is twice the least multiple of the base value of the game actually played which would have fulfilled the bid.
Note that the above are the official rules as from 1st January Before then, scores for lost games played from the hand were not doubled see scoring variations.
If as declarer you announce Schneider but take less than 90 card points, or if you announce Schwarz or Open and lose a trick, you lose, counting all the multipliers you would have won if you had succeeded.
This should normally be worth 48 game points "against 2, game 3, hand 4, 4 time clubs is 48". Rearhand has a Null Ouvert and bids up to 46, to which M says yes.
M plays clubs hand and takes 74 card points including the skat cards , but unfortunately the skat contains J, Q. M is therefore with 1 matador not against 2 as expected , and the game is worth only 36 "with 1, game 2, hand 3 times clubs" , which is less than the bid.
M therefore loses 96 game points twice the 48 points which would be the minimum value in clubs which would fulfill the bid.
Had M taken say 95 card points, the Schneider multiplier would have increased the value of the game to 48 "with 1, game 2, hand 3, schneider 4 times clubs" and M would have won 48 game points.
It is unusual, but occasionally happens that the declarer in a suit or Grand contract takes 30 card points or fewer.
In this case the opponents have made the declarer Schneider, and the Schneider multiplier applies. In the practically unknown but theoretically possible case where the declarer in a suit or Grand contract loses every trick, the Schneider and Schwarz multipliers would both be counted.
Example: the declarer plays spades without 2 and takes 28 card points. Result: without 2, game 3, schneider 4.
Normally a running total of each player's score is kept on paper. At the end of a session to be fair, each player should have dealt an equal number of times , the players settle up according to the differences between their scores.
Between each pair of players, the one with the lower score pays the one with the higher score the difference in their scores multiplied by the stake.
Example : A , B and C are playing for 5 Pfennig a point. A side effect of the method of scoring is that if there are four players at the table, the dealer of a hand is effectively against the declarer, winning or losing the same as the declarer's opponents.
He then wins with 78 points in tricks. These are awarded to the declarer. Example 2: Declarer bids 30 and declares a Null Ouvert game.
She, however, is forced to take the ninth trick, losing the game. Ramsch "junk" is not part of sanctioned Skat rules, but is widely practiced in hobbyist rounds, and is the variant most often suggested to be officially sanctioned.
It is played if all three players pass in the bidding. There is no declarer in Ramsch ; every player plays for himself, and the goal is to achieve as low a score as possible.
The idea behind Ramsch is to punish players who underbid their hands. To make Ramsch more interesting, an additional rule is often played that adds a second winning condition: the Ramsch is also won by a player if that player manages to take all tricks German : Durchmarsch i.
At first, this seems to be not too difficult, since the other players will initially try to take as few tricks as possible and to get rid of their high-ranking cards.
Once they get suspicious, however, they may thwart the effort simply by taking one trick from the player trying for the Durchmarsch. Suit ranks in Ramsch are the same as in the Grand game, with only the four Jacks being trumps.
Hobby players often add the following rule: 10s are lower in trick taking power than Queens and Kings, but still count as ten points.
Sometimes, they only count one point. There are a couple of variants to the rules concerning 10s, so this should be sorted out before starting the game.
Often, the players are allowed to check and exchange cards with the skat, or decline to do so and pass the skat on to the next player, doubling the score known as Schieberamsch.
Jacks are not allowed to be passed on in this variation. The two cards in the Skat are usually added to the tricks of the player who takes the last trick.
After all ten tricks are played, the player with the highest number of card points or alternatively, every player has their card points amount deducted from their score as negative game points.
If one player takes no tricks at all Jungfrau , English: virgin , the points of the losing hand are doubled. Some players also give a fixed value of 15 negative points to the loser and if there are two "virgins", Another variation used in smaller tournaments is the Gewinner-Ramsch winner-rubbish.
If none of the players bid a Ramsch is played. Unlike the original negative game the winner is who achieves the lowest score and is awarded 23 points, the score of a won Null.
Additionally they are awarded the won game. The skat is given to the player with the highest score. If two players achieve the same lowest score they will both be awarded the 23 points and the won game.
While not very widely spread this variation is a nice addition as it rewards the player who most rightfully did not bid. It is possible to play a modified version of the game with only two players.
A popular two-player variant is called Strohmann strawman , in which the dummy hand is played by the player who loses bidding.
After the game has been declared, the third hand is flipped and can be seen by the other players. Thus, it is possible to predict what hand the opponent has and play much more strategically.
It is sometimes used to teach new players the principles of Skat. Another variant is Oma Skat where the dummy hand is known as Oma or "Grandma".
Officers' Skat German : Offiziersskat is a variant for two players. Each player receives 16 cards on the table in front of him in two rows, 8 face down and 8 face up on top of them.
Bidding is replaced by the non-dealer declaring a game type and trump. When a face-up card is played, the hidden card is turned over.
Each deal results in a total of 16 tricks and players must agree whether a game lasts for a certain number of deals or until one player scores a certain number of game points.
Scoring is similar to normal Skat. Skat in the United States and Canada was played for many years as an older version of the game, also known as Tournee Skat , which shares most of its rules with its modern European counterpart with the addition of a few different games and an alternate system of scoring.
Tournee Skat is declining in popularity. Most tournament Skat players in North America play the modern game described above. Upon determining the game, declarer may also state that he or she intends to Schneider or Schwarz for extra game points or penalties.
The game points, however, are a bit different. Base value for the different games are as follows:. As in German skat, game points in North American Skat are tallied by multiplying base game value by:.
Note that if Schneider or Schwarz are declared but not made, then the contract is not met and declarer loses the amount that he or she would have won if successful.
The above multipliers do not figure into games played null or ramsch. M bids first, either passing or bidding typically bidding the minimum of If F says yes, M may either pass or increase their bid.
F decides whether to pass or match M;s bid again. This continues until either F or M drops out by passing. If a player passes they can no longer bid on the hand.
R must increase their bids as the junior, to which F or M must match. Whoever does not pass becomes the declarer , or the winner of the bid.
The declarer has the right to pick up the two skat cards. Add them to hand and discard two unwanted cards face-down.
After discarding, the declarer chooses their game.